The Treaty of Ghent was signed in the city at the old Carthusian monastery of Meerhem on 24th December 1814. The Treaty put a formal end to the state of war that had existed between Great Britain and the United States of America since 1812. The Treaty of Ghent was subsequently ratified by US President Madison and King George III on 17th February 1815.
'The Battle of New Orleans' by Edward Percy Moran (Library of Congress)
There were various reasons for the conflict. The areas being disputed included control of shipping and trade, the border with Canada, the fate of the native American people and fishing rights. However, the trigger was Britain’s decision – as part of its fight against France – to claim control over shipping on the high seas. The United States of America considered this particular claim to be a threat to its independence, which had been obtained from Great Britain just a few decades earlier. In the eyes of the Americans, the former mother country no longer had the right to exercise this kind of authority. As a result, Britain qualified its decision to control shipping on 16th June 1812, saying that it did not apply to fleets from States that were neutral in the conflict with France (including the United States). However, the news took a long time to reach the other side of the Atlantic and hostilities broke out two days later on 18th June 1812. The end of the war was equally remarkable. The final military confrontation – in fact the only one where there was any clear-cut decision – took place in New Orleans, resulting in a crushing American victory.
The battle occurred on 8th January 1815, two weeks after the signing of the peace treaty about which neither side had been informed. All things considered, the war itself was relatively devoid of military encounters and is sometimes also known as the “phoney war”.
'Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans'Mural painted by Ethel Magafan in the Recorder of Deeds building in Washington D.C. (1943) - Photo D.B. King
So, why was Ghent chosen as the location for the peace negotiations and the signing of the treaty? First and foremost, there was a need for a “neutral” venue. The parties to the war, the United States and Great Britain, were immediately excluded for this reason, although London had very much hoped to host the talks. France, the country defeated in the fight against the European allies was not considered. Another candidate, Gothenburg, was also excluded because Sweden had a monarch loyal to Napoleon on the throne. The Southern Netherlands had been under allied administration since February 1814 (and would remain so until September 1815).
'The signing of the Treaty of Ghent' by Sir Amédée Forestier (1914)
Admiral James Lord Gambier and John Quincy Adams shake hands; Henry Goulburn is carrying a red document-holder.
The American delegation rented the baroque Schamp hotel, which was uninhabited at the time.The hotel consisted of three 18th century townhouses situated on the corner of Veldstraat and Volderstraat, known successively under the names of “Cour de Lovendeghem”, “Hotel Schamp” and “Hotel d’Alcantara”. When the property was sold in 1898, the complex was divided into two and the ground floor was converted at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, the property is home to the retail stores Caron & Esprit/C&A.
The British were installed in the former residence of Lievin Bauwens on Fratersplein. In 1798 Lievin Bauwens purchased the old Carthusian monastery of Meerhem , - which was suppressed by Joseph II in 1783 -, to live there and set up a factory. Canon De Decker bought a large section of the estate in 1843 for the Brothers of St John of God, who took up residence in 1844. In 1946, the congregation of the Hieronymite Brothers took over management of the Institute of St John of God.
In 1964, commemorative plaques were placed on the façades of the two buildings.
At Christmas 1814 a thanksgiving service was celebrated in the St.Bavo Cathedral, attended by all delegates and on 8th January 1815 a banquet was offered them by the city council in the Throne Room of City Hall.
Article The First.
His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America desirous of terminating the war which has unhappily subsisted between the two Countries, and of restoring upon principles of perfect reciprocity, Peace, Friendship, and good Understanding between them, have for that purpose appointed their respective Plenipotentiaries, that is to say, His Britannic Majesty on His part has appointed the Right Honourable James Lord Gambier, late Admiral of the White now Admiral of the Red Squadron of His Majesty's Fleet; Henry Goulburn Esquire, a Member of the Imperial Parliament and Under Secretary of State; and William Adams Esquire, Doctor of Civil Laws: And the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, has appointed John Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry Clay, Jonathan Russell, and Albert Gallatin, Citizens of the United States; who, after a reciprocal communication of their respective Full Powers, have agreed upon the following Articles.
There shall be a firm and universal Peace between His Britannic Majesty and the United States, and between their respective Countries, Territories, Cities, Towns, and People of every degree without exception of places or persons. All hostilities both by sea and land shall cease as soon as this Treaty shall have been ratified by both parties as hereinafter mentioned. All territory, places, and possessions whatsoever taken by either party from the other during the war, or which may be taken after the signing of this Treaty, excepting only the Islands hereinafter mentioned, shall be restored without delay and without causing any destruction or carrying away any of the Artillery or other public property originally captured in the said forts or places, and which shall remain therein upon the Exchange of the Ratifications of this Treaty, or any Slaves or other private property; And all Archives, Records, Deeds, and Papers, either of a public nature or belonging to private persons, which in the course of the war may have fallen into the hands of the Officers of either party, shall be, as far as may be practicable, forthwith restored and delivered to the proper authorities and persons to whom they respectively belong. Such of the Islands in the Bay of Passamaquoddy as are claimed by both parties shall remain in the possession of the party in whose occupation they may be at the time of the Exchange of the Ratifications of this Treaty until the decision respecting the title to the said Islands shall have been made in conformity with the fourth Article of this Treaty. No disposition made by this Treaty as to such possession of the Islands and territories claimed by both parties shall in any manner whatever be construed to affect the right of either.
Article The Second.
Immediately after the ratifications of this Treaty by both parties as hereinafter mentioned, orders shall be sent to the Armies, Squadrons, Officers, Subjects, and Citizens of the two Powers to cease from all hostilities: and to prevent all causes of complaint which might arise on account of the prizes which may be taken at sea after the said Ratifications of this Treaty, it is reciprocally agreed that all vessels and effects which may be taken after the space of twelve days from the said Ratifications upon all parts of the Coast of North America from the Latitude of twenty three degrees North to the Latitude of fifty degrees North, and as far Eastward in the Atlantic Ocean as the thirty sixth degree of West Longitude from the Meridian of Greenwich, shall be restored on each side:-that the time shall be thirty days in all other parts of the Atlantic Ocean North of the Equinoctial Line or Equator:-and the same time for the British and Irish Channels, for the Gulf of Mexico, and all parts of the West Indies:-forty days for the North Seas for the Baltic, and for all parts of the Mediterranean-sixty days for the Atlantic Ocean South of the Equator as far as the Latitude of the Cape of Good Hope.- ninety days for every other part of the world South of the Equator, and one hundred and twenty days for all other parts of the world without exception.
Article The Third.
All Prisoners of war taken on either side as well by land as by sea shall be restored as soon as practicable after the Ratifications of this Treaty as hereinafter mentioned on their paying the debts which they may have contracted during their captivity. The two Contracting Parties respectively engage to discharge in specie the advances which may have been made by the other for the sustenance and maintenance of such prisoners.
Article The Fourth.
Whereas it was stipulated by the second Article in the Treaty of Peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty three between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America that the boundary of the United States should comprehend "all Islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States and lying between lines to be drawn due East from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one part and East Florida on the other shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such Islands as now are or heretofore have been within the limits of Nova Scotia, and whereas the several Islands in the Bay of Passamaquoddy, which is part of the Bay of Fundy, and the Island of Grand Menan in the said Bay of Fundy, are claimed by the United States as being comprehended within their aforesaid boundaries, which said Islands are claimed as belonging to His Britannic Majesty as having been at the time of and previous to the aforesaid Treaty of one thousand seven hundred and eighty three within the limits of the Province of Nova Scotia: In order therefore finally to decide upon these claims it is agreed that they shall be referred to two Commissioners to be appointed in the following manner: viz: One Commissioner shall be appointed by His Britannic Majesty and one by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and the said two Commissioners so appointed shall be sworn impartially to examine and decide upon the said claims according to such evidence as shall be laid before them on the part of His Britannic Majesty and of the United States respectively. The said Commissioners shall meet at St Andrews in the Province of New Brunswick, and shall have power to adjourn to such other place or places as they shall think fit. The said Commissioners shall by a declaration or report under their hands and seals decide to which of the two Contracting parties the several Islands aforesaid do respectely belong in conformity with the true intent of the said Treaty of Peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty three. And if the said Commissioners shall agree in their decision both parties shall consider such decision as final and conclusive. It is further agreed that in the event of the two Commissioners differing upon all or any of the matters so referred to them, or in the event of both or either of the said Commissioners refusing or declining or wilfully omitting to act as such, they shall make jointly or separately a report or reports as well to the Government of His Britannic Majesty as to that of the United States, stating in detail the points on which they differ, and the grounds upon which their respective opinions have been formed, or the grounds upon which they or either of them have so refused declined or omitted to act. And His Britannic Majesty and the Government of the United States hereby agree to refer the report or reports of the said Commissioners to some friendly Sovereign or State to be then named for that purpose, and who shall be requested to decide on the differences which may be stated in the said report or reports, or upon the report of one Commissioner together with the grounds upon which the other Commissioner shall have refused, declined or omitted to act as the case may be. And if the Commissioner so refusing, declining, or omitting to act, shall also wilfully omit to state the grounds upon which he has so done in such manner that the said statement may be referred to such friendly Sovereign or State together with the report of such other Commissioner, then such Sovereign or State shall decide ex parse upon the said report alone. And His Britannic Majesty and the Government of the United States engage to consider the decision of such friendly Sovereign or State to be final and conclusive on all the matters so referred.
Article The Fifth.
Whereas neither that point of the Highlands lying due North from the source of the River St Croix, and designated in the former Treaty of Peace between the two Powers as the North West Angle of Nova Scotia, nor the North Westernmost head of Connecticut River has yet been ascertained; and whereas that part of the boundary line between the Dominions of the two Powers which extends from the source of the River st Croix directly North to the above mentioned North West Angle of Nova Scotia, thence along the said Highlands which divide those Rivers that empty themselves into the River St Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean to the North Westernmost head of Connecticut River, thence down along the middle of that River to the forty fifth degree of North Latitude, thence by a line due West on said latitude until it strikes the River Iroquois or Cataraquy, has not yet been surveyed: it is agreed that for these several purposes two Commissioners shall be appointed, sworn, and authorized to act exactly in the manner directed with respect to those mentioned in the next preceding Article unless otherwise specified in the present Article. The said Commissioners shall meet at se Andrews in the Province of New Brunswick, and shall have power to adjourn to such other place or places as they shall think fit. The said Commissioners shall have power to ascertain and determine the points above mentioned in conformity with the provisions of the said Treaty of Peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty three, and shall cause the boundary aforesaid from the source of the River St Croix to the River Iroquois or Cataraquy to be surveyed and marked according to the said provisions. The said Commissioners shall make a map of the said boundary, and annex to it a declaration under their hands and seals certifying it to be the true Map of the said boundary, and particularizing the latitude and longitude of the North West Angle of Nova Scotia, of the North Westernmost head of Connecticut River, and of such other points of the said boundary as they may deem proper. And both parties agree to consider such map and declaration as finally and conclusively fixing the said boundary. And in the event of the said two Commissioners differing, or both, or either of them refusing, declining, or willfully omitting to act, such reports, declarations, or statements shall be made by them or either of them, and such reference to a friendly Sovereign or State shall be made in all respects as in the latter part of the fourth Article is contained, and in as full a manner as if the same was herein repeated.
Article The Sixth.
Whereas by the former Treaty of Peace that portion of the boundary of the United States from the point where the forty-fifth degree of North Latitude strikes the River Iroquois or Cataraquy to the Lake Superior was declared to be "along the middle of said River into Lake Ontario, through the middle of said Lake until it strikes the communication by water between that Lake and Lake Erie, thence along the middle of said communication into Lake Erie, through the middle of said Lake until it arrives at the water communication into the Lake Huron; thence through the middle of said Lake to the water communication between that Lake and Lake Superior:" and whereas doubts have arisen what was the middle of the said River, Lakes, and water communications, and whether certain Islands lying in the same were within the Dominions of His Britannic Majesty or of the United States: In order therefore finally to decide these doubts, they shall be referred to two Commissioners to be appointed, sworn, and authorized to act exactly in the manner directed with respect to those mentioned in the next preceding Article unless otherwise specified in this present Article. The said Commissioners shall meet in the first instance at Albany in the State of New York, and shall have power to adjourn to such other place or places as they shall think fit. The said Commissioners shall by a Report or Declaration under their hands and seals, designate the boundary through the said River, Lakes, and water communications, and decide to which of the two Contracting parties the several Islands lying within the said Rivers, Lakes, and water communications, do respectively belong in conformity with the true intent of the said Treaty of one thousand seven hundred and eighty three. And both parties agree to consider such designation and decision as final and conclusive. And in the event of the said two Commissioners differing or both or either of them refusing, declining, or wilfully omitting to act, such reports, declarations, or statements shall be made by them or either of them, and such reference to a friendly Sovereign or State shall be made in all respects as in the latter part of the fourth Article is contained, and in as full a manner as if the same was herein repeated.
Article The Seventh.
It is further agreed that the said two last mentioned Commissioners after they shall have executed the duties assigned to them in the preceding Article, shall be, and they are hereby, authorized upon their oaths impartially to fix and determine according to the true intent of the said Treaty of Peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty three, that part of the boundary between the dominions of the two Powers, which extends from the water communication between Lake Huron and Lake Superior to the most North Western point of the Lake of the Woods;-to decide to which of the two Parties the several Islands lying in the Lakes, water communications, and Rivers forming the said boundary do respectively belong in conformity with the true intent of the said Treaty of Peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty three, and to cause such parts of the said boundary as require it to be surveyed and marked. The said Commissioners shall by a Report or declaration under their hands and seals, designate the boundary aforesaid, state their decision on the points thus referred to them, and particularize the Latitude and Longitude of the most North Western point of the Lake of the Woods, and of such other parts of the said boundary as they may deem proper. And both parties agree to consider such designation and decision as final and conclusive. And in the event of the said two Commissioners differing, or both or either of them refusing, declining, or willfully omitting to act, such reports, declarations or statements shall be made by them or either of them, and such reference to a friendly Sovereign or State shall be made in all respects as in the latter part of the fourth Article is contained, and in as full a manner as if the same was herein revealed.
Article The Eight.
The several Boards of two Commissioners mentioned in the four preceding Articles shall respectively have power to appoint a Secretary, and to employ such Surveyors or other persons as they shall judge necessary. Duplicates of all their respective reports, declarations, statements, and decisions, and of their accounts, and of the Journal of their proceedings shall be delivered by them to the Agents of His Britannic Majesty and to the Agents of the United States, who may be respectively appointed and authorized to manage the business on behalf of their respective Governments. The said Commissioners shall be respectively paid in such manner as shall be agreed between the two contracting parties, such agreement being to be settled at the time of the Exchange of the Ratifications of this Treaty. And all other expenses attending the said Commissions shall be defrayed equally by the two parties. And in the case of death, sickness, resignation, or necessary absence, the place of every such Commissioner respectively shall be supplied in the same manner as such Commissioner was first appointed; and the new Commissioner shall take the same oath or affirmation and do the same duties. It is further agreed between the two contracting parties that in case any of the Islands mentioned in any of the preceding Articles, which were in the possession of one of the parties prior to the commencement of the present war between the two Countries, should by the decision of any of the Boards of Commissioners aforesaid, or of the Sovereign or State so referred to, as in the four next preceding Articles contained, fall within the dominions of the other party, all grants of land made previous to the commencement of the war by the party having had such possession, shall be as valid as if such Island or Islands had by such decision or decisions been adjudged to be within the dominions of the party having had such possession.
Article The Ninth.
The United States of America engage to put an end immediately after the Ratification of the present Treaty to hostilities with all the Tribes or Nations of Indians with whom they may be at war at the time of such Ratification, and forthwith to restore to such Tribes or Nations respectively all the possessions, rights, and privileges which they may have enjoyed or been entitled to in one thousand eight hundred and eleven previous to such hostilities. Provided always that such Tribes or Nations shall agree to desist from all hostilities against the United States of America, their Citizens, and Subjects upon the Ratification of the present Treaty being notified to such Tribes or Nations, and shall so desist accordingly. And His Britannic Majesty engages on his part to put an end immediately after the Ratification of the present Treaty to hostilities with all the Tribes or Nations of Indians with whom He may be at war at the time of such Ratification, and forthwith to restore to such Tribes or Nations respectively all the possessions, rights, and privileges, which they may have enjoyed or been entitled to in one thousand eight hundred and eleven previous to such hostilities. Provided always that such Tribes or Nations shall agree to desist from all hostilities against His Britannic Majesty and His Subjects upon the Ratification of the present Treaty being notified to such Tribes or Nations, and shall so desist accordingly.
Article The Tenth.
Whereas the Traffic in Slaves is irreconcilable with the principles of humanity and Justice, and whereas both His Majesty and the United States are desirous of continuing their efforts to promote its entire abolition, it is hereby agreed that both the contracting parties shall use their best endeavors to accomplish so desirable an object.
Article The Eleventh.
This Treaty when the same shall have been ratified on both sides without alteration by either of the contracting parties, and the Ratifications mutually exchanged, shall be binding on both parties, and the Ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington in the space of four months from this day or sooner if practicable. In faith whereof, We the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty, and have hereunto affixed our Seals.
Done in triplicate at Ghent the twenty fourth day of December one thousand eight hundred and fourteen.
John Quincy Adams
J. A. Bayard
Vzw Treaty of Ghent develops, organizes and promotes several projects and events, in the cultural sphere as well as in the tourist sector but particularly in the field of education. The first initiatives have already been achieved and our action will gradually expand to reach a culmination in 2014-2015.
We want to actively involve young students in the commemoration of ‘200 years Treaty of Ghent’ by encouraging activities but also by supporting real contact between interested local schools and educational establishments in the other countries involved namely the USA, the United Kingdom and Canada.
The focus at this commemoration is on PEACE, a theme that deserves our attention and that of young people more than ever.
From the beginning a number of schools in Ghent felt called to participate. The Saint Barbara college, The Ghent Institute, the Saint Bavo Humaniora and the PANTA RHEI atheneum from Gentbrugge are starting to crystallize their ideas into concrete plans. Not only do they want to make contact with American, British and Canadian schools but they also want to create and exchange video recordings, applications and virtual guided tours or organize an ‘American week’ or a ‘British happening’. Others schools are preparing project days with sport demonstrations, culinary surprises, facebook records, theatrical performances, quiz competitions and many more original events. Still others dream of an international flash mob or a comic about the Treaty of Ghent.
Even schools in other cities like Oudenaarde and Deinze share in the enthusiasm.
Members of school management, teaching staff and students who do not wish to miss this Peace boat can NOW contact
JP De Smet
09 222 1776 - 0471 643610
Teachers Symposium - White House Visitor Center
Treaty of Ghent: kick-off event
On the 19th of April 2012 the kick-off meeting for the activities regarding the 200th anniversary of the Treaty of Ghent took place in Ghent’s City Hall.
In the presence of the ambassadors of the countries concerned, Mr de Lorimier of Canada, Mr Gutman of the United States and Mr Brenton of the United Kingdom, Mayor Termont welcomed the more than 120 attendees.
After a historical explanation by professor em. Balthazar, the ambassadors clarified the meaning of the Treaty to their respective countries. Mr Kris Peeters, as Minister-President of the Flemish Government, underlined the importance of the planned events and expressed his complete support.
In his contribution CEO Richard Hanze specified the strengths of the program.
The academic part was round off with a drink and a walking dinner in the presence of numerous prominent figures from the political, cultural and business world.
The not-for-profit organisation vzw Treaty of Ghent was founded to celebrate the Bicentenary of the Treaty in 2014.
Find out more about the mission, history and structure of our organisation
Even before vzw Treaty of Ghent was founded, it was clear that the majority of Belgians, Flemings and citizens of Ghent knew little about the actual content of the Treaty of Ghent.
But on closer examination, it became clear that many people view the signing of the Treaty and its consequences for the United States of America, Canada and Great Britain and the whole of Europe as being enormously important.
In 1914, various initiatives and festivities planned to commemorate the centenary of the signing of the Treaty could not be carried out due to the outbreak of the First World War.
Admittedly, the celebrations to mark the Bicentenary planned to run from April 2014 to March 2015 are ambitious, but they have been greeted everywhere with great enthusiasm. One only has to look at the names of the members of the General Meeting to realise that many prominent public figures support the project – and that we will make a huge success of the event.
The programme planned is so extensive that to acquire the necessary financial means will only be possible through subsidies provided by various government departments. To interest potential sponsors, it is vital for their name to be highly visible and seen as much as possible at all events and in all related communication.
The key to success is to have large numbers of people come and visit Ghent, the city where the Treaty of 1814 was signed. And the strategy to achieve that aim is as follows:
This information will be disseminated not only via this website, but also through international communication and press conferences.
Foreign visitors – mainly American, Canadian and British – wanting to find out about Western Europe will be visiting Ghent more and more as the “hidden” pearl of Europe. And for anyone wishing to visit Ghent, it is absolutely vital that they be able to find out more about one of the most important events in history: the Treaty of Ghent!
Back in 2005, the late Professor A.L.J. Van de Walle set in motion steps for extensive celebrations to mark the Bicentenary of the Treaty of Ghent in 2014. His daughter Sonja has since done all that is necessary to make this dream come true.
On Wednesday 19 November 2008, the not-for-profit organisation vzw Treaty of Ghent was founded by 16 individuals from the “Portus aan de Reep” association under the presidency of Jacques Berkvens.
During the foundation meeting, the founders, all members of the General Meeting:
The Deed of Foundation was published in the Belgian State Journal of 2 January 2009 under number 808617239
The founders are (in alphabetical order):
The purpose of vzw Treaty of Ghent is described as follows in the articles of association:
Design for front façade reception wing with rotunda prior to 1808
Interior of Sint-Jan de Deo church
The members of the General Assembly of the vzw Treaty of Ghent are
Members (in alphabetical order):
To provide for the operating resources of vzw Treaty of Ghent, we are counting on the support of Governments, Sponsors and Friends.
In terms of the programme for 2012 – 2015, we are relying on contributions from government subsidies, patrons, sponsors, and friends to help us carry out as many of our stated aims as possible.
Every individual, company or institution that is interested in becoming a Patron or Sponsor of vzw Treaty of Ghent, may register via e-mail stating: “Applicant Patron”. Please do not forget to indicate your name and e-mail address.
Applicant Patrons and Sponsors will be contacted in order to examine the various sponsorship options and to see which project would be most appropriate for their wishes and requirements.
Friends who join as members are all entitled to attend the General Assembly of vzw Treatyof Ghent, albeit without any voting rights.There are three types of Friend:
These Friends are kept informed of our activities by e-mail. Meetings will be organized for Ordinary Members during the period 2012-2014. All Ordinary Members (on payment) will also be able to register in advance for the events to be held in 2014 - 2015 and hence will be able to obtain better seats.
These Friends have the same benefits as Ordinary Members.The names of Supporting Members will also be mentioned in publications issued by vzw Treaty of Ghent.
These Friends have the same benefits as Supporting Members, plus special invitation to receptions at premières, launches, presentations, etc.
Annual fees are due for each calendar year and can be paid for 2012 from now onwards into account number 143-0744744-79, stating your name. Below is a summary of the annual fees for Friends (per person per year).
|Ordinary Member||€ 30|
|Supporting Member||€ 100|
|Protecting Member||€ 300|
Click here to register as a Friend.
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